Thursday, July 5, 2012

Грамматика русского языка. Часть 13. Числительные. Глава 4. Даты. Russian Grammar. Part 13. Numerals. Unit 4. Dates.

Dates, months, and years: how to use cardinal and ordinal numerals to answer the questions: What is the date today? On what date? In which year?
The months of the year are written with a small initial letter. They are all masculine.

(А) To answer the question Kaкое сегодня число? (What is the date today?), the neuter form of the ordinal numeral is used (to agree with число - date) followed by the genitive case of the month:
Сегодня первое мая. Today it is the lst of May.
Note that in the case of compound numerals, only the last digit is in the ordinal form:
Сегодня двадцать восьмое февраля. Todаy it is the 27th of Februаry.

(В) To answer the question Какого числа? (On which date?), the ordinal numeral must be put into the genitive case:
День рождения моего мужа третьего октября. My husband's birthday is on the 3rd of October.

(С) To answer the question Какой год? (Which year?), Russian uses the following forrmula:
1999 = the one thousand nine hundred and ninety-ninth year
тысяча девятьсотдевяносто девятый год = 1999r.
i.e. the last digit is an ordinal numeral.
2000 = thе 2000th year = двухтысячный год = 2000 г.
2001 = thе two thousand and first year = две тысячи первый год = 2001г.
Note that the letter г. (for год) usually follows the year when it is written in figures.

(D) To answer the question B каком году? On which year?), the ordinal numeral must be put into the prepositional case:
В тысяча девятьсот пятьдесят третьем году. In 1953.
If details of dates and months are given before the year, then the ordinal numeral must be put into the genitive case:
Она родилась тридцать первого марта тысяча девятьсот четырнадцатого года.  She was bom on 31st March 1914.

1 comment: