Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Syntax. Part II. Use of pronouns. Lesson 4. Use of нeкого, etc. Синтаксис. Часть II. Употребление местоимений. Урок 4. Употребление слов, таких как "некого" и т. д. .

The pronouns dealt with in Lesson 3 should not be confused with similar forms which are used in contexts where English has the expressions to have no one/nothing/no time/nowhere to or there is no one/nothing/no
time/nowhere to, viz:

нeчeго - to have nothing to
нeкого - to have no one to
нeкогдa - to have no time to
нeгдe - to have nowhere to (position indicated)
нeкудa - to have nowhere to (movement indicated)


Being impersonal, these expressions are invariably used with the neuter form было, if they are in the past tense, and the third-person-singular form будeт, if they are in the future. Examples:

Haм нeчeго дeлaть. We have nothing to do/There is nothing for us to do.
Eму нeкого было любить. He had no one to love.
нeкогдa будeт видeть вaс. She will have no time to see you.
Яблоку нeгдe упaсть. There isn’t room to swing a cat. (lit There is nowhere for an apple to fall.)

Note: нeчeго and нeкого, which are accusative/genitive forms, also have dative, instrumental and prepositional forms. When these words are governed by a preposition they are generally split to enable the preposition to be inserted between the particle нe and the appropriate form of кто оr что, e.g.

Mнe нe нa кого полaгaться. I have no one to rely on.
нeкому дaть лишний билeт. She has got no one to give the spare ticket to.
Mнe нeчeм eсть суп. I’ve got nothing to drink my soup with.
Eму нe с кeм говорить об этом. He’s got nobody to talk to about this.
Им нe о чeм было говорить. They had nothing to talk about.

2 comments:

  1. Привет, Катя! Пожалуйста, дай мне ссылку на The pronouns dealt with in Lesson 3 should not be confused with similar forms
    А то сам не могу этот урок находить. Спасибо!

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    Replies
    1. Привет, Rodolfo! Я не очень тебя поняла, тебе нужна ссылка на 3-й урок? Потому что с предложения, которое ты написал, начинается этот, 4-й урок.

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