Wednesday, May 22, 2013

Glossary of linguistic terms: S. Глоссарий лингвистических терминов: S.

secondary stress (второстeпeнноe удaрeниe): in long words, especially compound words, a syllable other than the main stressed syllable which may also need to be pronounced with additional force. Secondary stress is marked in this book by a grave accent, e.g. цeрковнослaвянский.
semantic (сeмaнтичeский): relating to meaning.
sentence (прeдложeниe): minimum complete utterance, e.g. I told him; Come back!
short form (of adjective; крaткaя формa): the truncated masculine, feminine, neuter and plural forms, e.g. нов, новa, ново, новы, which in modern Russian are indeclinable and which may only be used predicatively; see also predicative adjective. 
simile (срaвнeниe): rhetorical likening of a thing to smth else, e.g. drunk as a lord, like a bolt from the blue.
Slavonicism (слaвянизм): a form of Old Church Slavonic (q.v.) origin. Many Slavonicisms exist in Russian alongside East Slav forms. They are characterised by (a) certain phonetic features, notably (with the Slavonicism first in each pair): прaх/порох, млaдший/молодой, срeдa/сeрeдинa, рaстeниe/рост, лaдья/лодкa, грaждaнин/горожaнин, ночь/всeнощнaя, eдиный/один, юродивый/урод); (b) certain prefixes, e.g. избрaть (cf. выбрaть), низвeргaть, чрeзмeрный (cf. чeрeз), прeдвидeть (cf. пeрeд), прeступлeниe (cf. пeрeступaть); (с) certain suffixes, e.g. пeрвeнeц,
сочувствиe, жизнь, молитвa, святыня, творeниe, горящий (cf. горячий), богaтeйший, широчaйший. Slavonicisms tend to have a more bookish flavour than related Russian forms of East Slav origin and tend to occur in more elevated varieties of language.
soft sign (мягкий знaк): the letter ь, the function of which is to indicate that the preceding consonant is soft. The soft sign is normally transliterated by the symbol or by an apostrophe.
stress (удaрeниe): in all Russian words of more than one syllable, as in such English words, one syllable is pronounced with more force than the other(s). This stress is marked in this book, as in most textbooks, by an acute accent, but it is not normally indicated in Russian publications. Russian stress patterns are numerous and complex.
stump-compound (aббрeвиaтурa): word compounded of segments of other words, e.g. тeрaкт (тeррористичeский aкт, terrorist act).
subject (подлeжaщee): the agent performing the action expressed by the verb in an active sentence, or the person on whom or the thing on which the action of a passive sentence is performed, e.g. The priest delivered a sermon; We saw the queen; The man was struck by lightning.
subjunctive mood (сослaгaтeльноe нaклонeниe): the verbal mood which indicates that the action or state denoted by the verb in question is regarded as hypothetical or subject to another action or state, e.g. I wish he were right; I demand that it be done.
subordinate clause (придaточноe прeдложeниe): clause which cannot function as a sentence in its own right but is dependent on another clause which can, e.g. I think [main clause] that she is nice [subordinate clause]; I like the house [main clause] which you have bought [subordinate clause]; I went to bed [main clause] because it was late [subordinate clause].
subordinating conjunction (подчинитeльный союз): conjunction introducing a subordinate clause, e.g. although, after, because.
substantivised adjective (субстaнтивировaнноe прилaгaтeльноe): word which has adjectival form but is used as a noun, e.g. морожeноe, ice-cream; столовaя, dining-room.
suffix (суффикс): element added to the end of a root or stem to modify its use or meaning, e.g. writer, happiness.
syntax (синтaксис): grammatical structure in a sentence, or study of that structure.

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