Wednesday, September 12, 2012

Урок 38. Количество. Lesson 38. Quantities.

In Russian quantities of currency arе measured in roubles and kopeks, weights in grams and kilograms and distances in metres and kilometres.
The rules governing use of cardinal numerals are important when dealing with prices, weights and measurements (adjectival agreements with the numeral 1; genitive singular
after 2,3,4 and compounds of 2,3,4; genitive plural after quantities more than 5).

(А) Russian exchange rates have varied dramatically in recent years; when inflation was at its highest the kopek (копейка) disappeared, but normally the main unit of currency, the rouble (рубль), consists of 100 kopeks:
один рубль
два рубля
пять рублей
двадцать один рубль
двадцать два рубля
двадцать пять рублей
пять копеек
десять копеек
пятьдесят копеек
Note that the abbreviations for рубль and копейка are: p. and к.: 11p.50к. 11 roubles 50 kopeks.

(B) The dative case is used to express age, with the word for year (год), which has the genitive plural лет: Сколько ему лет? (How old is he?): Ему 15 лет (21 год, 22 года, 25 лет), He is 15 (21,22,25).

(С) The words litre, gram and kilogram have passed straight into Russian as литр, гpaмм, килограмм (often shortened to кило).
The prefix пол- is used to indicate half a litre or half a kilogram.
Notе that the word гpaмм has two acceptable forms of the genitive plural either грамм or граммов:
его вес – семьдесят килограммов
полкило апельсинов
двести грамм(ов) сыра
литр молока
his weight is 70 kilos
half a kilo of oranges
200 grams of cheese
a litre of milk
The abbreviation for килограмм is кг, for грамм is г.

(D) Distance in Russian is measured in metres and kilometres (метр and километр).
Его рост – два метра
От города до дачи – двадцать километров
Мы живём в тридцати километрах от дачи
His height is 2 metres
From the town to the dacha it is 20 kilometres
We live 30 kilometres from the dacha
The abbreviation for километр is км, for метр is м.

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