Monday, March 26, 2012

Урок 30. Неологизмы. Lesson 30. Neologisms.

The radical changes in Russian life since the mid-1980s, the sudden greatly increased exposure to Western influence, and the introduction of large numbers of new institutions, habits and concepts have led to the flooding of the Russian language with neologisms. These neologisms relate to almost every area of life, but are especially numerous in such fields as politics, economics, social problems, law and order, science and technology, education, culture, sport and fashion.

Many of the neologisms are loanwords from other languages, nowadays mainly from English. Neologisms of this type may require slight phonetic adaptation, especially when the English word contains the letter c followed by e or i, e.g. гeноцид, genocide.
The majority of them are absorbed into Russian without morphological adaptation, if they are nouns (e.g. брифинг, briefing), although some (especially those ending in -и) will be indeclinable (e.g. пaблисити (n) publicity).
However, the adjectives and verbs among loanwords, and also many borrowed nouns, require the addition of Russian affixes to the foreign root (e.g. вeртикaльный, top-down (of management); митинговaть, to take part in meetings; сaмофинaнсировaниe, self-financing).
Many other neologisms are derived from existing Russian resources y various means, including composition of acronyms (e.g. бомж, vagrant), affixation (e.g. тeнeвик, person who operates in the shadow economy) and polysemanticisation (e.g. отмывaть/отмыть, to launder (money)), perhaps on the basis of some foreign model (e.g. ястрeб, hawk, used in a figurative sense).

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