Wednesday, December 26, 2012

Грамматика русского языка. Часть 8. Глагол. Глава 16. Разрешение, запрет, необходимость и т. д. Russian Grammar. Part 8. The Verb. Unit 16. Possibility, etc.

The infinitive is used in phrases to mean it is possible, it is impossible, it is necessary and it is time to.

(A) The key words expressing possibility and permission, impossibility and prohibition, necessity are:
можно it is possible, one may
нельзя it is impossible, one mаy not
надо it is necessary
пора it is time to

These words are all followed by infinitives and are used with the dative of the person being advised of possibility, permission etc.:
Нельзя курить! No smoking! (it is not possible to smoke)
Здесь можно фотографировать? Is it possible to take photographs here?
Мне надо спать. I need to sleep (for me it is necessary to sleep)

(В)  In the case of нельзя the choice between imperfective or perfective infinitive affects the meaning:
Imperfective: Вам нельзя выходить сегодня! You can’t go out today! (i.e. because you are ill, not allowed to).
Perfective: Нельзя выйти. You can’t go out (i.e. it is not possible to go out, e.g. because someone has lost the key).

(С) Можно is a very useful term in both questions and statements and is often used on its own when you are trying to find out whether something is possible or permitted.
For example, if you want to find out if a seat is free, you would say можно?
If it is in order for you to sit there, the person you have asked will reply можно. (May I sit here? Yes, you may.)

(D) Возможно means it is possible and is an alternative to можно only in the sense of possibility (not in the sense of permission).

(E) Нужно, like надо, refers to necessity:
Что надо делать?   What is it necessary to do?

(F) Пора means it is time to and occurs in phrases such as:
Нам пора идти.   It's time for us to go.
This is often abbreviated to нам пора and sometimes just пора.

(G) Use the past and future tenses of быть to put expressions of possibility, permission etc. into past and future contexts:
Что надо будет делать?   What will it be necessary to do?
Мне надо было спать.   I needed to sleep.

1 comment:

  1. Отличный урок!(Просто, чтобы помочь):
    В (D), не существует пример.
    В (Е) примера с (надо), а не (Нужно).
    Но все понятно и хорошо понимают и это не имеет значения. Спасибо за уроки.